Surrogate mothers. A technique called «in vitro fertilization» (IVF) now makes it possible to take eggs from the mother (or an egg donor), fertilize them with sperm from the father (or a sperm donor), and place the embryo in the uterus of a pregnant surrogate mother. More and more states are using codified legislation to recognize and enforce properly negotiated alternative parental contracts. One state, California, uses jurisdiction to enforce parental contracts. It is important that these states regulate the terms of the surrogacy contract. For example, in most States, parents of parental intention are not allowed to pay more than the surrogate`s medical and incidental expenses; And in all states, parents of parental intent are not allowed to interfere with a surrogate`s right to abortion. Interestingly, most states that apply surrogacy contracts at most support the intended parents, who are also the genetic parents of the child. These conditions argue that parents who intend to be parents have two parental rights – one based on the intention to raise the child and the other based on genetics – which, taken together, outweigh any parental claim that a surrogate mother might make solely on the basis of her pregnancy relationship with the child. In cases of surrogacy where the intended parents provide the surrogate mother with an embryo that is not genetically related to them, the codified law and case law are based solely on the intention of the intended parents to establish legal parenthood. In addition, in some states where intent is recognized as the factor that establishes parenthood, parents of parental intent may apply for an order before the birth of the baby ordering that their names and not those of the surrogate mother and husband (if she has one) be recorded on the birth certificate. Cases such as the Baby M case have led opponents of commercial surrogacy to point out that such parenting arrangements tend to exploit poor, young, single, or ethnic/minority women who are desperate for money, and that some surrogacy agencies ask surrogates to see themselves as mere incubators for the planned education of baby parents. In addition, some opponents of surrogacy reject non-commercial surrogacy for at least two reasons.
First, a female family member may be pushed to show love for another female family member, for example, by serving as a surrogate mother for them. Second, a child may be deeply disturbed when he discovers that it is not the mother who raises him, but in fact his aunt who is his pregnancy and perhaps his genetic mother. Finally, other opponents of surrogacy argue that surrogacy agreements risk the marketing of babies as goods or products for which contracts can be concluded as if they were mere things and not human persons. Pregnancy surrogate mothers are less likely to have hypertensive disorder during pregnancy than mothers who are pregnant through egg donation. This may be due to the fact that surrogate mothers tend to be healthier and more fertile than women who use egg donation. Surrogate mothers also have low rates of placental previa/placental abruption (1.1-7.9%).  There is still some controversy about using a surrogate mother to have a baby. The legal process is also difficult because it varies from state to state.
Nevertheless, whether due to fertility problems or for other reasons, surrogacy is an option for you and your partner. Find out how it works and see if it`s right for you. Surrogate mothers play an important role in the life of a child with a disability. Like parents, surrogate mothers of children with disabilities are given an important decision-making role and are involved in every step of the special education process. The absence of a parent may prevent the child from accessing adequate and free identification, assessment, placement and public education. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine says surrogate mothers should have a medical exam to check if they are likely to have a healthy, full-time pregnancy. The organization suggests that they receive tests that look for infectious diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, HIV, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B and C. In the United States, surrogacy is legally less complex. This is because both intended parents have genetic ties to the baby.
As a result, surrogacy has become more common than traditional surrogacy. About 750 babies are born with surrogacy each year. Betty opened the doors of her family to me and she always took care of me like a surrogate mother. These sample phrases are automatically selected from various online information sources to reflect the current use of the word «surrogate mother.» The opinions expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us your feedback. Some States that recognize surrogate parent agreements retain features of adoption law in their codified legal and judicial frameworks. As a rule, these conditions offer the surrogate a period of change of heart, usually about 72 hours, during which she can decide not to revoke her parental rights vis-à-vis the child. According to some legal theorists, intent alone does not necessarily determine legal parenthood.
They believe that the «sweating» of pregnancy should be seen as some kind of parental right to a child. Anthropological studies of surrogate mothers have shown that surrogate mothers use various distancing techniques during pregnancy through surrogacy to ensure that they are not emotionally attached to the baby.    Many surrogate mothers deliberately attempt to foster the development of an emotional bond between the intended mother and the surrogate.  The surrogate mother waives her parental rights upon the birth of the child. The biological father automatically becomes the legal father, while the non-biological parent adopts the child. Not all states allow surrogate parent arrangements. For surrogacy pregnancies where only one child is born, the rate of premature birth in surrogacy is slightly lower than that of babies born from standard IVF (11.5% vs. 14%). Babies born from surrogacy also have an average gestational age similar to that of infants born through in vitro fertilization and egg donation; approx.
37 weeks. The rate of preterm birth was higher in surrogate twin pregnancies than in single births. There are fewer babies with low birth weight when born through surrogacy compared to those born through in vitro fertilization, but both methods have similar rates of birth defects.  The legality of surrogacy varies around the world. Many countries do not have laws dealing specifically with surrogacy. Some countries ban surrogacy altogether, while others prohibit commercial surrogacy but allow altruistic surrogacy (where the surrogate mother is not financially compensated). Some countries allow commercial surrogacy with few restrictions. Some jurisdictions extend the prohibition of surrogacy to international surrogacy.
In some jurisdictions, the rules that apply to adoptions apply, while others do not regulate the practice. Other qualities of an effective surrogate mother include: The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommends that the surrogate`s autonomy be respected throughout the pregnancy, even if her wishes are at odds with what the intended parents want.  Jurisdictions that allow surrogacy sometimes offer the intended mother, especially if she is also the genetic mother, the opportunity to be recognized as the legal mother without going through the process of abandonment and adoption. .